and the roots of type
Doesn't type/temperament theory pigeonhole people
into 16 "boxes"?
and the roots of type
Here's a bit of
an introduction to basic MBTI... I'm
not sure how much you know already so I'll just start from scratch.
I've adapted this from an email I wrote to a friend...
stands for Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, which is basically a personality
test and associated personality model based on the work of the Swiss
psychologist Carl Gustav Jung (1875 - 1961). Jung was a contemporary
of Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, and although Jung was
initially a Freudian (and very highly regarded by Freud, who treated
him like a son), a bitter disagreement erupted between the two and Jung
split off to develop personality theories of his own.
legendary swiss doctor/psychologist Carl Gustav Jung; some say
he was an INTP.
and Katheryn Briggs were a mother-and-daughter team of psychologists
who took Jung's theory of psychological types (I believe work was started
in the 1940s) and developed it into a basic type/temperament model that
today is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Work and further research
into type theory is continuing, and one of the most promising such developments
is David Keirsey's "Temperaments" theory which treats
the four letter functions not singly but in specific pairs (i.e. NT,
NF, SJ and SP). Keirsey is most famous for his original type/temperament
book, "Please Understand Me" (also known simply as
PUM), which appeared in 1978 and which he co-authored with the late
Marilyn Bates. PUM is by far the most universally well-known
and best-selling of all type-related books, which is ironic as some
purists consider Keirsey's temperament theory separate and distinct
from the standard type theory model.
In type theory,
there are 16 different personality "types," and each
type has four letter slots, with each of these slots having one of two
letters which describe the personality's preference in a particular
area (so 24 = 16 basic personality types).
MBTI and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator are trademarked names
referring to a specific product, although brand confusion has resulted
in the associated theory being referred to by names such as "personality
typing," "type," or "type model," much as Kleenex
has passed into common usage to refer to tissue paper. However, MBTI
refers to the actual Myers-Briggs Type Indicator personality test,
whereas "type" commonly refers to the theory behind
it. "Temperament" refers to David Keirsey's temperament
model, essentially an extension of type theory.
The first letter
position can be either E or I, standing for Extraverted or Introverted.
In a nutshell, this describes how we are "energised": extraverts
recharge and get energised from lots of interaction with other people,
while introverts need to spend time alone to recharge their internal
batteries. Note that E or I does not necessarily have anything to do
with "shyness" as such. There are plenty of introverts that
easily pass as extraverts, except of course that they need to recharge
their energies by spending time alone. The general public stereotype
of introverts as pathological, reclusive and hermit-like is an inaccurate
by-product of the glorious psychiatry days (remember the ice-pick lobotomies?).
Some introverts are able to live happily isolated from people, while
others (such as INFJs) regularly need to have people around to survive
- these are the "affiliative introverts," a lighthearted label
which some would say is a contradiction in terms!
think this is a rather shallow and inaccurate generalisation
on introversion; many introverts aren't "bound up"
but actually thrive on companionship and small gatherings of
people, especially close friends.
The second letter
can be either S or N, for Sensing or INtuitive (N for
Intuitive since I has already been used for Introversion). This basically
describes whether we are more observant (sensing) or introspective (intuitive).
Sensates pay more attention to the outside world, the current
surroundings and its immediate needs, whereas intuitives heed the promptings
of the inner world of thoughts and feelings. Intuitives are more
likely to have their heads in the future or the past, exploring possibilities
and pathways - Ns typically like to daydream. Note that this is not
to be mistaken for introversion. [This passage under review for technical
The public stereotype
of the introvert would be an IN, an intuitive introvert with his or
her head in the clouds, but in reality you can also get IS sensing introverts
who have their attention focused firmly on the present. Also, it must
be noted that in this instance intuition does not refer to psychic/paranormal
type intuition, although in some instances it can. Studies suggest both
S and N people can display psychic abilities, and rightly so.
love to explore the realm of possibilities!
The third letter
indicates a preference for Thinking or Feeling. That is,
whether our head or our heart rules us more. Contrary to popular belief,
both thinking and feeling (in this context) are rational functions,
used to make decisions and acting on them. A Feeling personality isn't
illogical or irrational, despite what some may try to tell you! Feeling
people cherish values more than principles -- so while they may follow
rules, they will break them if it means helping somebody or being compassionate
to others; the situation determines what the Feeler will do. Thinking
types are more likely to stick to the principles and rules no matter
what. They use logic to reach a conclusion and act on it.
Of course, things
get much more complicated than that. The T and F functions are more
than just decision-making processes, they determine how we come across
and even what outlook we have on life. It's not uncommon for conflict
to erupt between Ts and Fs. For example, an F person might accuse a
T of being cold and unfeeling, insensitive, while the T might say that
the F is weak-willed and mushy, unable to "think rationally."
Ts and Fs have different value systems. Fs tend to be more compassionate,
while Ts are usually firm.
One important point
to note is that the T/F scale doesn't necessarily have anything to do
with emotions. An F person could in theory appear to be relatively cold
on the outside, whereas a T could seem bubbly and overemotional. When
we are talking about T and F we are discussing the way people make decisions,
not whether they seem emotional or not.
like Lucky Eddie here, draw subjective conclusions based on
letter consists of either Judging or Perceiving, which
determines how we run our lives. Perceivers prefer keeping their options
open and would rather not be tied to a schedule. Note that this doesn't
necessarily mean they are messy or disorganised people. With perceptive
types, work doesn't have to be finished before play begins! Judgers
are much more routine-oriented and orderly; they tend to have agendas,
timetables, outlines, and so on. They would rather have closure than
leave something unfinished, and prefer working towards a deadline. If
they aren't on time, Js tend to get very nervous!
Note that Judging
types aren't necessarily judgmental either - the two terms are unrelated;
you can have judgmental Ps (in Type, a lot of the terms don't adhere
to their "popular" definitions and hence are easily misunderstood).
issue that has come up is whether Js tend to be tidier around the home
than Ps, and the answer appears to be that tidiness doesn't seem to
have much to do with Type. There are messy Js and tidy Ps. The main
J/P difference appears to be closure - whether the person feels more
at ease when an issue has been resolved or a task completed on time.
often find it hard to reach a decision...
theory pigeonhole people into 16 "boxes"?
Well, no it doesn't.
The type model is a tool, and like all psychological tools it isn't
perfect. The 16 basic personality types don't fully describe the rich
and complex nature of human personalities, nor should they. Type merely
attempts to describe and model people's behavioural and personality
"preferences." Type is a valuable resource to aid us on our
journeys of self-exploration, but it isn't the last word. In the end,
only we can fully discover and understand ourselves.
Granted, not everybody
wants to understand and discover more about themselves (and others),
and I'm not in a position to speculate as to why. But I personally believe
that a lot of positive change and progress could be achieved in this
world if only everyone strove to better understand themselves and their
first to understand, and then to be understood."